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ON ABDU’L-BAHA’S FIRST morning in Canada, the front page of the largest newspaper in the country’s largest city printed an original pencil sketch of the “messenger of peace from the Orient to the Occident” who brought the city a clear message: “Be happy! You in Canada live in a magnificent, peaceful country. Be happy!”

1912 Flag of CanadaThe editor of the Montreal Daily Star, who was waiting for Abdu’l-Baha to arrive on the night of August 30, chose to highlight the apparent contrast of this “Apostle of Peace” predicting “an Appalling War” in Europe.

One of the major differences between Canada and the United States in 1912 was that Canadians saw world events through the lens of their membership in the British Empire. When Abdu’l-Baha spoke about a coming war in Europe, the warning held an immediacy for Canadians that it lacked in the United States. Britain was sure to be a principal player in any coming conflict, and as part of the Empire, Canada would be automatically involved.

Amongst Anglophone Canadians especially, talk of war was framed in terms of imperial or national duty and an opportunity to demonstrate manly virtues. In the context of such dominant ideas, Abdu’l-Baha’s statements about war were bold and, as the editor saw them, quite surprising.

Pencil sketch of Abdu'l-Baha on the front page of the Montreal Daily  Star“War must cease,” Abdu’l-Baha declares. “There is something above and beyond patriotism, and it is better to love your fellowmen than to love only your countrymen. When we see this and know in very truth the brotherhood of man, war will appear to us in its true light as an outrage on civilization, an act of madness and blindness. . . . we shall recognize that we were like men in a dungeon, fighting and slaying ourselves.”

In his interview with the Star, Abdu’l-Baha praised Canadians to the extent that they were not building up armaments. “What a contrast is presented in your country,” Abdu’l-Baha told the reporter. “Canada should be a very happy land. So far removed from such a condition of strife.” Abdu’l-Baha found great receptivity to the message of peace in Canada and the United States. “On this side of the Atlantic the peace message is well received; but in Europe, there is an apathy, a listlessness that is distressing,” he said. In “the old world, the inventive genius of man now seemed to be turned almost exclusively to the fabrication of murderous weapons of warfare.”

Abdu’l-Baha was sure that an “era of universal peace” was possible, but feared that before this, the world was headed towards “a war of colossal proportions” which “would be the most appalling in the world’s history.” He noted that much of the suffering endured by the common people of Europe was connected to this arms race. The idea that men would be pulled away from “productive employment” and “trained to slay one another,” he said, “was supreme madness.”

The Star noted that Abdu’l-Baha had been “deeply impressed by his tour of the United States and is looking forward with a great interest to his visit to Canada” where “the [Baha’i] movement has many adherents,” including “quite a number” in Montreal. Montreal was in fact the center of greatest activity for the early Baha’i community in Canada, and at the center of this activity was May Maxwell.

Abdu’l-Baha was staying at the home of May and her husband Sutherland Maxwell, who were members of Montreal’s Anglophone minority, living in the city’s most exclusive and wealthy neighborhood. They used their extensive social networks to maximize the impact of Abdu’l-Baha’s visit.

Within the first few hours of his arrival in Montreal, the impact of these efforts were evident in the growing public knowledge of his arrival in the city. Over lunch, Sutherland Maxwell told them how easy it was to retrieve the visitors’ luggage at the customs house when the government official opened their bags and saw a photo of Abdu’l-Baha. The official asked, “Is this the picture of the prophet of Persia?” When Sutherland Maxwell told him “Yes” he released the bags, saying “There is no need to inspect this luggage.”

Postcard of the Maisooneuve Monument in MontrealAbdu’l-Baha’s stay in Montreal, originally a two day detour to visit May Maxwell, was quickly transforming into one of the most publicized, eventful, and attended stops on his entire North American tour. He drew such a crowd on the first full day in Montreal that those managing his schedule suggested he send everyone away and get some sleep. “No, this is the time to work,” Abdu’l-Baha told them. “We must not think of fatigue. Everyone is to be met.”

One of those he had met early that morning was a reporter for the Standard who published his interview with Abdu’l-Baha in the paper’s afternoon edition.

“You have a very beautiful country and you must be very happy here,” Abdu’l-Baha told him. “My message to the Canadian people is this: Your country is very prosperous and very delightful in every aspect; you have peace and security amidst you; happiness and composure are your friends; surely you must thank God that you are so submerged in the sea of His mercy.”



Read the next 239 Days in America article: Blood Shed Over “Imaginary Lines”

Read the previous 239 Days in America article: Abdu’l-Baha Arrives in Montreal


This article was originally published on August 31, 2012 at, a social media documentary following Abdu’l-Baha’s 1912 journey through North America. © Tony Michel, 2012. This article may not be republished without prior written permission. Contact


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  • Jun 18, 2014
    May I persuade the author to read The Origins of the Baha'i Community of Canada, 1898-1948? It has a chapter devoted to Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Canada. It also corrects a number of inaccuracies that have previously appeared in other publications, and makes reference to the Canadian French-language press coverage which has typically been ignored in those publications. Good luck with your on-going research and writing!
  • James Howden
    Sep 11, 2013
    TONY is on Baha'i Teachings! Well, I shouldn't be surprised. TM is a thoughtful historian (and a funny guy), and this fellow Canadian has recently, among all the other joys and abundances of living in Canada, been getting to know Mr. Michel a little better. Nice to read him here, and a great scoop for BT, say I! So interesting to read in greater detail the stories of the Master, stories we think we know but that come to life all the more in the hands of a good writer. “You have a very beautiful country and you must be ...very happy here,”as 'Abdu'l-Baha said. I like his "must", with the original meaning of moral obligation and not simply of polite observation. We are *required* to be happy. Resistance is not only futile but foolish and counterproductive and ungrateful. I'm listening.
  • LizKauai
    Sep 06, 2013
    I enjoy your articles. Would you please consider having a button to POST to Facebook so that we can share these articles without having to cut and paste? Mahalo and Aloha!