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NOW THAT ABDU’L-BAHA’S final few weeks in America are upon us, we might reflect on how frequently he challenged what we today refer to as “Darwinism.” Our public conversation continues to invoke Darwin’s name as shorthand for a fully naturalistic explanation of human existence, where everything in life is interpreted as the result of the mechanistic workings of evolution, where a Creator has no reason to exist. Over the past decade, a number of evolutionary thinkers, among them Richard Dawkins, have set Darwin up as the prophet-figure in a brand of atheism born of a conviction that science has driven the final nail into religion’s coffin.

Picasso's - Guernica 1937Darwinism is generally used with an adjective in front of it — social Darwinism; economic Darwinism — with the notion of “survival of the fittest” brought to the fore. This phrase, first coined by Herbert Spencer after reading Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, quickly spilled over into social and economic thought. It defines human nature as rooted in self-interest, competition, and conflict, and has subsequently been used to justify everything from colonialism to eugenics, unrestrained laissez-faire capitalism, the abandonment of the poor, and ultimately, war.

When you read Abdu’l-Baha’s talks in America, you realize that he rarely engaged with the biological science of evolution, many aspects of which he agreed with. But he was intensely concerned with its wider implications — how the perception that human beings are nothing more than evolved animals generates an ultimately disastrous notion of human nature. Instead of highlighting the aspects of human life that we share with animals, he articulated a distinct conception of human nature rooted in the factors that make us different: consciousness, abstract thought, scientific advancement, moral reasoning, and qualities such as love, compassion, and justice.

Abdu’l-Baha refused to glorify war in an age when humankind stood on the brink of its first global conflict. “It is neither seemly nor befitting,” he said to an audience at Stanford University, “that such a noble creature, endowed with intellect and lofty thoughts, capable of wonderful achievements and discoveries in sciences and arts, with potential for ever higher perceptions and the accomplishment of divine purposes in life, should seek the blood of his fellowmen upon the field of battle.”

Abdu’l-Baha looked out upon the audience of 2000 people, filling the aisles and overflowing the balcony in the Stanford Assembly Hall, and asked them: “Shall we now destroy this great edifice and its very foundation, overthrow this temple of God, the body social or politic? When we are not captives of nature, when we possess the power to control ourselves, shall we become captives of nature and act according to its exigencies?”

Looking back on Abdu’l-Baha’s discourse in 1912, you can see him engaged in a constant rhetorical battle against the destructive ideologies he found flourishing in America. He took on Social Darwinism, and the idea of the survival of the fittest, over and over again. Abdu’l-Baha’s address at Stanford stood at the climax. “There is no lower degree nor greater debasement for man,” he said, “than this natural condition of animalism.”



This article was originally published on November 3, 2012 at, a social media documentary following Abdu’l-Baha’s 1912 journey through North America. © Robert Sockett, 2012. This article may not be republished without prior written permission. Contact


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  • Marty Flick
    Nov 02, 2013
    In the physical realm, a certain evolution took place; and still does. However, in the mental sphere, also some evolution is present; more and more, the minds search for advancement. As humanity 'matures', the minds become more 'educated', more and more we search for advanced educational methodologies. More collaboration begins to produce broader horizons. Spiritually, we learn, through our other faculties, that the fate of humanity is inextricably wound up in the issue of preserving the planet. The Master, I feel, encouraged and educated his audiences in the future widening of horizons. The more we attempt to model ourselves along ...these lines, we cannot but begin to fulfill the Master's visions.
  • James Howden
    Nov 01, 2013
    This was excellent. Have you ever noticed the phrase we use, so blindingly often, as we reflect on some selfish or ignoble action? "It's just human nature," we say. Abdu'l-Baha might be said to have been on an international campaign to redeem this sorry, pessimistic phrase. "When a thought of war comes," he famously said, "oppose it by a stronger thought of peace." Our challenge, when we see evidence of altruism, cooperation, compassionate feelings or the hunger for knowledge, is to nod and smile and remind everyone, "Well, it's only human nature."
  • Alethinos95
    Oct 31, 2013
    Well done...