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Remembering the Martyrdom of the Bab

From the Editors | Jul 10, 2018

The views expressed in our content reflect individual perspectives and do not represent the authoritative views of the Baha'i Faith.

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From the Editors | Jul 10, 2018

The views expressed in our content reflect individual perspectives and do not represent the authoritative views of the Baha'i Faith.

Why does humanity persecute our prophets? Over and over, we’ve treated new messengers of God terribly, greeting their peaceful messages with rage and violence.

For some strange reason, our leaders have reacted badly to the founders of the world’s great Faiths, persecuting them in horrible ways. Abraham and Moses faced prison, exile, ridicule and persecution. Krishna and Buddha suffered derision and official censure. Society’s leaders crucified Christ; made war on Muhammad; tortured, exiled and imprisoned Baha’u’llah; and executed the Bab.

The Bab founded the Baha’i Faith’s precursor religion—he was the Herald of a new system of belief, and a prophet of God in his own right. He started a progressive new Faith in the midst of one of the world’s most corrupt and backward societies. He suffered enormously as a result, but even after his gruesome execution the Babi Faith paved the way for the global emergence of the Baha’i Faith, just as John the Baptist did for Jesus’s new Faith at the beginning of the Christian era.

The Bab’s story began less than two centuries ago. The Bab (which means Gate in Arabic, and is pronounced bŏb) began his new Faith in 1844. Emerging out of the prophetic Sufi mysticism prevalent in 19th Century Persia, the Bab’s stirring message, which heralded the future appearance of a great, worldwide revelation, rapidly caught fire in that very tradition-bound Shi’a Muslim culture.

At first just a few people learned about the Bab, but then thousands and tens of thousands began to become Babis, radically breaking away from their society’s Islamic traditions and practices. The Babi Faith’s very existence called into question the authority of Persia’s Islamic religious leaders. In fact, the rapid growth of the Babi Faith challenged the basic underpinnings of Persian society.

As you might imagine, Persia’s clerics and rulers did not react openly or kindly to this new religious development, to say the least.

Location of The Bab’s martyrdom

The Barrack-Square in Tabriz where the martyrdom of the Bab took place.

A mere six years after the Bab’s announcement of his new Faith in 1844, the government ordered the execution of this young, intensely charismatic messenger, only thirty years old at the time. The Persian government and the Islamic clerics had already gruesomely tortured and killed more than 20,000 of the Bab’s ardent followers during the short, intense duration of the Babi movement.

This all happened when people began flocking to the Bab’s new spiritual teachings. Because the Bab called for revolutionary changes to the prevailing system of religious belief and governance, and because he taught the unity of all religions, the authorities feared that this dynamic new challenge and its growing support would soon sweep them from power.  

Regardless of the wholesale genocide against the Babis, more and more people continued to become followers of the Bab. In 1850, frightened of its growing influence and desperate to crush the Babi movement, the authorities made the decision to execute the Bab. When they charged him with apostasy—the same exact charge the Pharisees leveled against Jesus—the Bab refused to repent or refute his teachings, and calmly accepted the consequences.

On July 9, 1850, the Bab’s jailers ordered him executed by firing squad in the town square of Tabriz, Persia. A youth named Anis, one of the Bab’s young followers, insisted on accompanying him in death, and the authorities gladly consented. A massive crowd of ten thousand people watched from the roofs of the barracks and the nearby houses surrounding the square.

But a serious complication arose—earlier that morning Sam Khan, the commander of the Armenian regiment of soldiers ordered to execute the Bab, had begged his forgiveness in advance. “I profess the Christian faith,” the Russian officer told the Bab in his cell, “and entertain no ill will against you. If your Cause be the Cause of Truth, enable me to free myself from the obligation to shed your blood.”

Shrine of the Bab on Mt. Carmel Haifa, Israel.

Shrine of the Bab on Mt. Carmel in Haifa, Israel.

The Bab gently told the commander: “Follow your instructions, and if your intention be sincere, the Almighty is surely able to relieve you from your perplexity.”

At noon that day, when Sam Khan gave the order to fire, the muskets roared. The crowd gasped, because when the musket smoke cleared the Bab had disappeared. His devoted young follower stood completely unscathed at the base of the wall, the ropes that had bound him and the Bab hanging in tatters. Astonished, the crowd shouted that they had witnessed a miracle. Sam Khan, now relieved from his perplexity, immediately ordered his regiment to march away, swearing that he would never again obey such an order, even if it cost him his own life.

After Khan’s troops left the square, the colonel of the official Tabriz bodyguard volunteered to carry out the execution. After the guards found the Bab in his cell peacefully finishing a conversation, they strung him and his young follower up by ropes again.

“O wayward generation!” were the last words of the Bab to the gazing multitude, as the regiment prepared to fire its volley, “Had you believed in Me every one of you would have followed the example of this youth, who stood in rank above most of you, and would have willingly sacrificed himself in My path. The day will come when you will have recognized Me; that day I shall have ceased to be with you.” – quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 53.

Then the second firing squad took aim and fired. This time, the execution succeeded.

Today the fused, bullet-ridden bodies of the Bab and his faithful follower repose under a golden dome on Mt. Carmel in Haifa, Israel. Millions of people from all over the globe visit that holy spot, and every day the Shrine of the Bab proclaims the Baha’i message of unity, peace, love and selflessness to the world.  

All around the globe, Baha’is will observe the Martyrdom of the Bab at noon on July 9th, believing that the Bab set in motion a fresh cycle of progressive revelation to humanity. His revolutionary new teachings opened the path for the new message of Baha’u’llah, and his ultimate sacrifice gave us all a new vision of a unified world.

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  • Foad Farhoumand
    Jul 10, 2019
    Great article, but it was not a Russian officer, you meant to say an Armenian Officer.
  • Nava Sarracino
    Jul 10, 2017
    Thank you for this wonderful article, used it for the Holy Day up in Barrow, Alaska, two Baha'is and one friend's first Baha'i event. It was extremely easy to follow and in a short time clearly outlined all important details!
  • Emily Sheppard
    Jul 9, 2017
    Going to share this on Facebook! But please, out of respect, capitalize all of the Báb's pronouns.
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